Apples from Europe – high quality apples


What is pomology?

Pomology is the study of the structure, origin and relationship, functioning and functional properties of varieties of fruit trees and shrubs – mainly apple trees. It focuses on learning about the diversity of varieties, their morphological and taste characteristics, as well as on the development of new varieties through crossbreeding and selection. What are other characteristics of pomology?

From seed to apple

Pomology has a long history dating back to ancient times, when people began to consciously grow various species of trees and shrubs. Ancient Egypt was famous for its fruit production. Over the centuries, this region witnessed the development of numerous species that later spread throughout the world. Their cultivation provided food, building materials and medicines, while the fruit trade provided wealth.

Many valuable varieties of apple trees were discovered accidentally – in the garden, on the edge of the forest or in the middle of a boundary strip. Someone ate an apple and threw away the core, and the seeds grew into an apple tree producing valuable fruit. It is rare that a valuable seedling appears among many thousands of worthless ones. Some unique varieties are seedlings found in nature. These, found 200 or 300 years ago, include: ‘Oliwka Inflancka’, ‘Antonówka’, ‘Jonatan’.

The most valuable apple varieties appeared by accident in America at the end of the 19th century. Pioneers settling this continent brought with them cereal grains, vegetable and fruit seeds. They sowed and multiplied them, and in this way an enormous amount of genetic material of various origin was accumulated. When this material crossbred in orchards, apple tree varieties of extraordinary value were created, which have been dominating orchards to this day. These are ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Red Delicious’ (‘Starking’). These two varieties account for almost half of the world’s apple production. Pomology is the field of research and understanding of these relationships.

A wealth of species and varieties thanks to pomology

With the development of science and technology, people began to study cultivated varieties of vegetables and fruits with ever greater detail. The study of varieties of fruit trees and shrubs is called pomology. Its main goal is to develop and improve fruit varieties with desired characteristics, such as taste, appearance, durability, resistance to diseases and weather conditions. Pomological research is conducted to increase the quality and attractiveness of fruit, which is important for both producers and consumers, as well as for sustainable cultivation and food safety. Pomology also deals with the classification of fruit varieties and the description of their characteristics.

Nowadays, pomological research uses modern technologies and methods, such as biotechnology or genetic analyses, which allows for more effective and precise plant cultivation. Therefore, pomology plays a key role in the development of new fruit varieties and in ensuring high quality and diversity on our tables.

Pomology plays an important role in fruit production, because the selection of the appropriate variety is of great importance and determines, among others, the purpose of the fruit produced in a given orchard. This field of research is therefore pivotal in the development of horticulture and economy, in environmental protection and in expanding our knowledge of the plant world. It is a science that helps create a better future for us and future generations.

A better future for fruit growing – high quality now!

EU apple producers care about the future and focus on innovative solutions. They willingly use the benefits of science, including pomology. Thanks to this and to compliance with strict EU standards, European apples are always characterized by high quality and excellent taste.